Why is the cutting fluid used in CNC machining?

I believe that when you watch CNC machining, you have seen it. While cutting, the nozzle next to it sprays a liquid similar to oil. In fact, this liquid is cutting fluid.

Cutting fluid is a lubricant used in CNC machine tools, with functions such as lubrication, cooling and cleaning. Therefore, cutting fluid plays a very important role in the automatic processing of CNC machine tools.

CNC machining

                                                                                                   1.The role of cutting fluid

  1. Lubrication:

The cutting fluid can form an oil film on the surface of the workpiece and the tool, and can also penetrate into the smallest metal gaps and irregularities, reducing the friction between the metals. This can bring the following effects:

① Reduce tool wear and prolong tool life.

② The cutting resistance is reduced, and the machining can be performed with less power.

③ Prevent burrs on the edge and improve the precision of the machined surface.

  1. Cooling

Cutting fluids can reduce the heat generated during cutting operations and can reach temperatures as high as 600-1000°C. Especially for workpieces with low thermal conductivity such as stainless steel, it is difficult to dissipate heat, and the workpiece will become hot.

Using cutting fluid to reduce temperature can bring the following effects:

① Reduce the thermal deformation of the tool and prolong the tool life.

② The machining accuracy is stabilized by preventing the thermal deformation of the workpiece and the tool.

③ High-speed machining is realized.

cutting fluid

  1. Clean

The jet of cutting fluid can wash away the chips generated during the cutting process and play the role of cleaning the workpiece, which can bring the following effects:

① Prevent the workpiece from being scratched due to chip adhesion.

② Prevent machining defects caused by chip clogging and accumulation.

③ Prevent tool breakage due to chip entanglement.

                                                                                           2.Classification of cutting fluid

Cutting fluids can be roughly divided into two types: insoluble and water-soluble. Insoluble cutting fluids can be used directly, focusing on lubrication (and a few focusing on cooling). Water-soluble cutting fluids are usually diluted with water and used with an emphasis on cooling.

  1. Insoluble cutting fluid

Insoluble cutting fluid is a cutting oil with oil as the main component, which has a good “lubricating” effect, and can also effectively prevent rusting of CNC machine tools and workpieces. It is mainly used for cutting operations that require high precision.

Insoluble cutting fluid can be divided into inert type and active type. The inert type is used for light cutting and machining of soft metals and can effectively improve tool life. Active type is used for difficult-to-machine materials and low-speed machining, such as gear cutting, which can effectively improve machining accuracy.

Classification of cutting fluid

  1. Water-soluble cutting fluid

Water-soluble cutting fluid is a kind of cutting oil mixed with water and oil, which has a good cooling effect and is widely used in high-speed machining of machining centers.

There are three types of water-soluble cutting fluids commonly used: emulsions, solubles, and dissolving fluids.

Emulsion, a water-soluble cutting fluid made of water, oil and surfactant, is a milky white liquid with large oily particles. It has a high degree of versatility and is widely used in machining centers.

Soluble, water-soluble cutting oil made from water, oil, surfactants and soluble substances, is a translucent liquid with small oil particles. Has excellent cooling and penetration properties.

Dissolving fluid, water-soluble cutting oil made of water and soluble substances. The oil particles are very small and the liquid is usually green in color and has excellent cooling and durability.

The above is an introduction to the functions and classification of cutting fluids. Do you have a deeper understanding of this fluid?

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