How CNC machine tools work

The working principle of CNC machine tools can be simply summarized as follows: The computer control system converts the processing program into machine tool control signals to control the machine tool to perform various movements and processing operations in two- and three-dimensional spaces, thereby realizing the processing of the workpiece.

  1. Writing and input of processing programs. The processing programs of CNC machine tools are written by special software. The written processing projects need to be input into the control system of CNC machine tools through the computer.
  2. Processing of machine tool control system. The control system of CNC machine tool is composed of computer, control, servo motor, coding system, etc. After the control system receives the work program, it specializes it into machine tool control signals to control the rotation and position changes of the same motor, thereby realizing various movements and processing operations of the machine tool. The control system can also automatically adjust parameters such as cutting speed, feed speed and cutting depth of the machine tool according to the instructions in the processing program to ensure processing quality and efficiency.
  3. Motion control of machine tools. Motion control of CNC machine tools is achieved by controlling the rotation and position changes of the same motor. During the machining process, each axis of the machine tool needs to move according to a predetermined trajectory. The control system will calculate the movement trajectory and speed of each axis of the machine tool according to the instructions in the processing program, and convert them into control signals for the servo motor. , thereby realizing the movement of the machine tool.
  4. Tool control and tool change. Tool control of CNC machine tools is achieved by controlling the expansion, contraction, rotation and other movements of the tool. The control of the tool needs to be carried out according to the instructions in the processing program. The control system will automatically select the appropriate tool according to the instructions and control it to the predetermined position and angle to achieve cutting of the workpiece.
    CNC machine
    CNC machine

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